Thomas was raised in Titusville, Pennsylvania. He graduated from the United States Air Force Academy in 1974 and Tulane University School of Medicine in 1978. He completed his orthopedic surgery residency at Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center in 1983. Dr. Goodwin is Board Certified in orthopedic surgery. He has practiced orthopedic surgery in the Treasure Valley since 1987, opening his clinic specializing in shoulder care in May 2002. This practice became the first in Idaho to offer exclusive treatment for the shoulder.